Galebach, Ray Lewis, passed away on October 11. Son of the late Lewis Ray Galebach and Arlene Hacker Minnich, Ray was born Apri 1, 1932, in Lincoln, Pa. Ray was a member of the former Bethel Springs BIC (Reinholds, Pa.). He is survived by his wife, Barbara G. (Kanode) Galebach; four daughters, Barbara M. King, Margaret L. High, Arlene A. Kaylor, and Vivian J. Galebach; two sons, Lewis Ray and Eugene; 10 grandchildren; and seven great-grandchildren. His funeral was held at Gravenor Home for Funerals (Ephrata, Pa.), and was officiated by Rev. John Leisey. Interment occurred at Lincoln Cemetery (Lincoln-Ephrata, Pa.).
Gelson, Joyce M., passed away on November 26. Born March 16, 1934, to the late Howard D. and Ida M. Bulger Klumpp in Queens, New York, Joyce attended Lancaster (Pa.) BIC. She was predeceased by her husband, John F. Gelson, and is survived by three sons, three daughters, 17 grandchildren, and one great-grandchild. After a funeral in Lancaster, she was interred in St. Joseph New Catholic Cemetary (Lancaster, Pa.).
Karns, Charles A., passed away on June 8. Born October 17, 1924, in Everett, Pa., to the late Albert J. and Clara P. (Pittman) Karns, Charles was a member of Clear Creek BIC (Everett, Pa.) for nearly 50 years. He enjoyed hunting, antique shows, bluegrass music festivals, playing the harmonica, and spending time with his family. He is survived by his wife, wife, Evelyn O. (O’Neal) Karns; two sons, Fred C. and Dennis L.; daughter, Bonnie L. Ruby; three sisters, Helen Dickenson, Mildred Busick, Patty Foster; brother, James Ralph Karns; five granddaughters; four grandsons; and 25 great-grandchildren. His funeral was held at Dalla Valle Funeral Chapel (Everett, Pa.), with Pastor John E. Geyer officiating. Interment occurred at Bedford County Memorial Park.
Kilmer, Joyce A., passed away on August 27. She was born on September 11, 1937, in New Bethlehem, Pa., to the late Clair and Dorothy (Coleman) Polliard. Joyce worked as a waitress, sewing factory employee, and professional house cleaner. She is survived by a daughter, Stacey Campbell; son, Kevin C.; brother, Clair Polliard; five grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. Her funeral was held at Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.), with Pastor Kenneth Hepner and Rev. M. Eugene Heidler officiating. Interment occurred at Cedar Grove Cemetery.
Klahre, Norma Jean, passed away on July 23. Born March 28, 1935, to the late Irvin Orville and Ida May (Clingerman) Miller, in Pennsylvania, Norma Jean was a member of Clear Creek BIC (Everett, Pa.) for more than 50 years, and during that time actively participated in the life of the congregation by singing in a church quartet. Her first husband, Frederick Vincent Foor, died in 1955. She and her second husband, Ray C. Klahre, to whom she was married for 53 years, owned a beef farm. Norma Jean loved listening to gospel music and attending gospel music concerts. She was thoughtful of others, always sending greeting cards to family and friends. She was preceded in death by her first husband; sisters, Dorothy Mae, Belle, Lena, and Velma; and brothers, Roy, Allen, Harold, Ivan, Kenneth, Leroy, and Irvin Jr. She is survived by her second husband, Ray C. Klahre; four daughters, Vicki L. Stiffler, Pamela L. Watkins, Penny S. Kipp, and Lisa J. Miller; son, Ricky Vincent Foor; sister, Betty Clark; 12 grandchildren; and 15 great-grandchildren. Her funeral was held at Clear Creek BIC, with Pastor John E. Geyer officiating. Interment occurred at Yellow Creek St. Paul’s Cemetery, in Bedford County, Pa.
Marr, Doris Jean (Shoalts), 80, of Wainfleet, ON, passed away on April 27. She was born August 23, 1931, in Pennsylvania, to the late Roy and Ruth (Sentz) Shoalts. A great supporter of missionary families and Mennonite Central Committee, she is survived by three daughters, Cynthia Kingma, Suzanne Sider, and Sandra Armstrong; a son, Stephen; three brothers, Lester Shoalts, Roy Shoalts, and Robert Shoalts; two sisters, Mary Jane Robinson and Nancy Payson; 12 grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. Her funeral was held at Wainfleet (ON) BIC, with the Rev. John R. Sider officiating. Interment occurred at Maple Lawn Cemetery in Wainfleet.
Marr, William Glen, 91, of Wainfleet, ON, passed away April 27. Born April 15, 1921, to the late William and Dora (Mater) Marr, he is remembered as a wonderful farmer and family man. He is survived by three daughters, Cynthia Kingma, Suzanne Sider, and Sandra Armstrong; a son, Stephen; a sister, Margaret Ward; a brother, Harold; 12 grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. His funeral was held at Wainfleet (ON) BIC, with the Rev. John R. Sider officiating. Interment occurred at Maple Lawn Cemetery in Wainfleet.
Peachey, Helen Ann (Wert), 74, passed away on May 4. Born December 30, 1937, to the late Jacob and Fern (Brubaker) Wert, Helen was a graduate of Lancaster Mennonite High School. She worked for many years as a secretary for Community Nursing and as a dietary aide for Locust Grove Retirement Village. A farmer’s wife, she also devoted herself to helping out on the farm. She was active in her church, Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.), as a chorister and Sunday School teacher. She is survived by three sons, Warren, Dennis, and Loren; a daughter, Linda Hosler; a brother, Sherle Wert; two sisters, Nancy Varner and Judy Kanagy; nine grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. A funeral was held at Cedar Grove BIC, with the Rev. Warren Peachey officiating. Interment occurred at Cedar Grove Cemetery.
Vincent, Charles Ray, of Dillsburg, Pa., passed away on March 12. Son of the late Ray & Anna Beth (Beader) Vincent, he was born on August 7, 1922, in Geneva, N.Y. Charles was a retired forklift operator for the Naval Supply Depot in Mechanicsburg, Pa., and a U.S. Army veteran of World War II. He was involved with the Dillsburg, Pa., and Mechanicsburg senior citizen’s center, and served as a former troop leader with the Dillsburg Boy Scouts and as a former member of the Dillsburg American Legion. He was a faithful member of the Dillsburg BIC Church. Charles is survived by two daughters, Pamela Vincent and Wendy Wirt; two grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. His funeral, held at Cocklin Funeral Home in Dillsburg, was officiated by the Rev. Jim Spurrier. Interment occurred at Rolling Green Cemetery (Camp Hill, Pa.).
Lehman, Agnes R., passed away on February 13. Born to Percy and Ruth (Steckley) Cober on February 12, 1925, in Gormley, ON, she attended Niagara Christian Collegiate (Fort Erie, ON) and Messiah College (Grantham, Pa.). A member of Messiah Village BIC (Mechanicsburg, Pa.), she served with her husband, Rev. J. Robert Lehman, as a missionary in Zimbabwe for 15 years. Agnes was a wonderful letter writer and enjoyed china painting, cooking, entertaining, sewing and knitting. She prayed faithfully for her family and friends and was a trusted and faithful friend to many. Agnes is survived by her husband, Rev. Lehman; five children, Steven, Deborah Weaver, Susan Good, Randy, and Thomas; twelve grandchildren; 11 great-grandchildren; and three sisters, Marie Hoover, Velma Koop, and Doris Frey. A funeral was held at Messiah Village Chapel, officianted by Rev. Richard Long, and interment took place at Mt. Pleasant BIC Cemetery (Mt. Joy, Pa.).
Merritts, Gladys P., 88, of Roaring Spring, Pa., passed away on February 11. She was born on October 28, 1923, in Taylor Township, Pa., to the late David Bair and the late Alice Bertha (Dively) Shehan. A homemaker, Gladys faithfully attended Martinsburg (Pa.) BIC and enjoyed shopping, watching game shows, and celebrating Christmas. She is survived by two daughters, Betty J. Snyder and Connie L. Claire; son, George; nine grandchildren; 14 great-grandchildren; and 12 great-great grandchildren. She was preceded in death by her husband, Clinton; grandson, Robert Fagan; two sisters, Irene Croft and Ruth Helsel; four brothers, Orville Shehan, Sr., Carl Shehan, Warren Dodson, and Mearl Dodson. A funeral was held February 14 at John C. Bolger Funeral Home (Martinsburg, Pa.), with Pastor Michael R. Abell and Pastor Earl E. Herr officiating. Interment occurred at Holsinger Cemetery (Roaring Springs, Pa.).
Bechtel, Elsie Catherine, 98, of Canton, Ohio, passed away on November 20, in her home following a period of declining health. Born October 26, 1913, to the late Emmanual and Laura (Myers) Bechtel, she was a life resident of Canton and a lifelong member of the Valley Chapel Brethren in Christ Church there. She had a 32-year teaching career in Canton City Schools. At church, she was very active in all aspects of church life, especially in the Sunday School program and youth ministries. Elsie served with BIC World Missions as a teacher for missionary children in Nicaragua and with Mennonite Central Committee in Europe. Lovingly called “Aunt Elsie” to many, she was well-known for her un-retiring efforts on behalf of children and youth in the community and church. She was a cheerful lady who brought laughter to many conversations and guided many souls in the way of the Lord. Else was preceded in death by one brother, Paul L. Bechtel, and one sister, Esther Hoover. She is survived by five nieces: Lois Bechtel Bevington, Elsie Mae Bechtel Kreider, Beth Laona Bechtel Brubaker, Marjorie Hoover Groff, and Janet Hoover Stoner. A public memorial service was held on November 26, at Valley Chapel BIC. Pastor Charles Burkett officiated. Interment was in the Valley Chapel cemetery.
Claire, Frank P., born October 26, 1937, in New Brighton, Pa., to Frank and Pearl (Lyautey) Claire, passed away on April 30, 2011. An Air Force veteran of the Korean War, he retired as a road crew foreman from PennDOT after more than 25 years of service. He was a member of Martinsburg (Pa.) BIC. He also participated as a member of the Martinsburg Sportsmen’s Association, the National Rifle Association, the North American Hunting Club, and the North American Fishing Club. He enjoyed hunting, target shooting, riding motorcycle, and being with his family. A memorial service was held on May 4, at Martinsburg BIC, with pastors Michael R. Abell and Earl E. Herr officiating. Interment with military honors took place at Fairview Cemetery in Martinsburg. He was preceded in death by a sister, Nancy Morgan. Surviving him are his wife, Aneta A.; son, F. Duane; grandson, Ryan D. ; and sister, Pearl A. “Polly” Brown.
Crawford, Nellie J. (Swartz), passed away on January 25. Daughter of the late Frank W. and Viola (Clark) Swartz, she was born on June 28, 1929, in Spruce Hill Township, Pa. She was a member of the Juniata County Republican Committee and the Pennsylvania Farm Bureau. She also volunteered for many state and community organizations. She shared her gift of cooking and baking at many church gatherings, but her greatest joy was spending time with her family. Nellie is survived by her husband, Richard B. Crawford; sons, Frank and Timothy; daughter, Kathy Saylor; sisters Kathryn Mark, Verna Landis, and Francie Kepner; brothers, Kenneth Swartz, James Swartz, and Richard Swartz; two grandsons, Chis Crawford and Evan Saylor; and two great-grandchildren, Caitlyn Crawford and Luke Crawford. Services were held at Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.), with Pastor Steve Munger officiating. Interment took place at Old Church Hill Cemetery (Port Royal, Pa.).
Duncan, Anna R., passed away on January 22. Daughter of the late Aaron and Mae Rowles, Anna was born on April 22, 1916, in Clearfield County, Pa. She was married to the late Robert E. Duncan for almost fifty years, until his death in 1985. Anna is survived by her daughters, Peggy A. Duncan, Cathy T. Duncan, and Carol A. Willman; two grandchildren; two great-grandchildren; and three great-great-grandchildren. Services were held at Andrew T. Scheid Funeral Home (Millersville, Pa.), and were officiated by Chaplain Karl Faehling. Interment occurred at Crown Crest Cemetary (Clearfield, Pa.).
Furry, Olive A., formerly of Bedford, Pa., passed away on April 15, 2011, at the Village at Morrisons Cove in Martinsburg, Pa. Olive was born on October 7, 1918, in Glendale, Pa., the daughter of Harry M. and Marietta (Spiker) Dodson. She married George W. Clark. After his death, she married Irven Furry, who also preceded her in death. She was a homemaker and a cook for Everett (Pa.) Elementary School. A member of Martinsburg (Pa.) BIC, she enjoyed flowers, gardening, cooking, and sharing her life with others. Surviving Olive are three sisters, Anna Mae Hunt, Shirley A. Deshong, and Donna J. Horton; two brothers, Fred W. Dodson and Donald R. Dodson; and many nieces and nephews. She was preceded in death by six brothers and sisters, Louise, Paul, Robert, Marie, Roy, and Majorie.
Goldizen, Celia E. Hendrick, 87, passed away on February 2. She was born on August 5, 1923, in Clearville, Pa., to the late Larry J. and Emma (Moyer) Valentine. She is survived by her daughter, Dorothy J. Hockenberry; son, Floyd L. Hendrick; and a brother, Max Valentine. Her funeral was held at Clear Creek BIC (Everett, Pa.), with Rev. John E. Geyer officiating. Interment occurred at Rock Hill Cemetery (Clearville, Pa.).
Goodenow, Willis G. (“Jerry”), 87, passed away on April 12, 2011. Born in San Francisco, Calif., on November 30, 1923, to the late Willis G. and Mary E. Goodenow, he grew up in Muncy, Pa., where he graduated from the Muncy-Muncy Creek High School in 1941. He attended Bucknell University (Lewisburg, Pa.), which he left in 1944 to serve his country as a Hospital Apprentice First Class in the U.S. Navy. Following his military service, Jerry attended Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia. In 1952, he opened his medical practice in Mifflinburg, Pa., and was a member of the medical staff at Evangelical Community Hospital (Lewsiburg). In 1966, he earned a degree in psychiatry, which he practiced until the end of his career. Jerry concluded his professional career by serving as a member of the Philhaven staff in Mt. Gretna, Pa. He is survived by his sister, Margaret Armstrong; three sons, William, John, and Thomas; two daughters, Carol A. Hollister and Patience Hardaker; and nine grandchildren. He was preceded in death by a brother, Robert. Pastor James Ernst officiated his memorial service, which was held at Lancaster (Pa.) BIC.
Heisey, Laban W., of Washington Boro, Pa., passed away on June 15, 2011. Son of the late Noah and Lizzie (Woglemuth) Heisey, he graduated from Millersville (Pa.) University, where he had been a member and president of Sigma Pi and, later, of the Alumni Association. In the spring of 1940, he taught at the historic Sandstone Rural School in Strasburg, Pa. He was an active member of the Mountville (Pa.) Lions Club, serving as secretary and president for many years. He sponsored and was instrumental in the formation of the West Hempfield (Pa.) Lions Club and received the Melvin Jones Award. Farming was Laban’s main occupation, and he also worked at Sears Roebuck in the sporting goods section. A member of Lancaster (Pa.) BIC, he enjoyed reading, working outdoors, hunting, fishing, and traveling with his family. He is survived by his wife, Esther (Martin), and two sons, Dr. Rodney M. and Dr. Dennis M. He was preceded in death by two brothers, Henry W. and Martin W., and a sister, Anna H. Oberholtzer. He was interred at Cross Roads BIC Cemetery in Mount Joy, Pa.
Holland, Fred, 85, passed away on October 16, having served in Brethren in Christ ministry for nearly 60 years. Born in Philadelphia into a non-Christian home, Fred was raised by his grandparents. He was converted from a life of sin at age 22 and was led to Messiah College (Grantham, Pa.). After his graduation from Messiah, he earned a master’s degree in Christian Education from Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary and a master’s degree and doctorate in Missiology from Fuller School of World Mission, where he team-taught with Dr. Ralph Winter. Fred pastored in Pennsylvania and served at the Detroit (Mich.) God’s Love Mission. Then together Fred and his wife, Dr. Grace Holland, spent 23 years with Brethren in Christ World Missions in Zimbabwe and Zambia. Fred served as an outschool superintendent, a teacher/principal of two BIC bible institutes, a trainer of urban church planters, and as a Theological Education by Extension (TEE) consultant to the Association of Evangelicals of Africa. Fred also headed up the TEXT-Africa book project of 43 texts. During the more than 50 years that Fred has served BIC missions, he helped to start Phumula Mission in Zimbabwe that had contact with bushmen, helped to start a Bible school in Zambia, and designed an urban church planting scheme that impacted the way BIC churches overseas multiplied. While serving as representatives-at-large for the Board for World Missions, Fred and Grace visited most of our countries of mission work. His long-term team ministry with his wife Grace has been recognized and supported by the Billy Graham Association and the National Association of Evangelicals. Fred taught at a number of major evangelical schools in the United States, including Moody Bible Institute, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, North American Baptist Seminary, Messiah College, Columbia Bible College and more. He was a world expert in Theological Education by Extension training. In 2007, the Association of Anabaptist Missiologists recognized Fred and Grace for their contribution to missions thinking and practice over the past 50 years. A memorial service was held at the Grantham (Pa.) BIC Church on October 22.
Kanode, Elda Mae, 92, passed away on January 13, 2011, at Messiah Village (Mechanicsburg, Pa.). Daughter of the late John O. Kanode and Cora (Feather) Kanode, she was born on May 5, 1918. She was a 1936 graduate of Morrison Cove Vocational High School (Martinsburg, Pa.) and attended Altoona (Pa.) Business School. She was employed for 20 years at Martinsburg Milling Company. A lifelong member of the Martinsburg BIC Church, she served the congregation in many ways: as literary custodian and as a faithful attendee and secretary/treasurer of the Willing Workers Sunday school class. In her spare time, she enjoyed quilting, needlework, gardening, reading, and music. Elda Mae was preceded in death by a sister, Ellen Breckbill, and a brother, Jesse. She is survived by a sister, Leora Kanode, and a number of nieces and nephews. A memorial service was held January 18 at Messiah Village BIC, with Pastor Ron Slabaugh, Rev. Earl Herr, and Rev. Michael Abell officiating. Interment occurred at Fairview Cemetery (Martinsburg, Pa.).
Leach, Frank E., passed away on February 28, 2011. Born in Milford Township, Pa., to the late John F. and Mae (Kirk) Leach, Frank was a U.S. Navy veteran of World War II. He worked for 30 years at American Viscoe Corporation (Lewistown, Pa.) and retired from Roadway Express in Mechanicsburg, Pa. A member of the Cedar Grove BIC Church (Mifflintown, Pa.), he also belonged to the Juniata River Anglers Association and Teamsters Local 776 of Harrisburg, Pa. He was an avid outdoorsman, but he most enjoyed spending time with his family and at their activities. Frank is survived by his wife of more than 65 years, Geraldine (Shelley); two sons, Gary and Frank I.; a sister, Evelyn Tennison; a grandson, Michael; and a great-grandson, Caleb.
Marr, Merlin Ross, 89, passed away on July 10, with his family around him in his home at Parkview Meadows (Townsend, ON). He was born on May 15, 1923, in Wainfleet, ON, to the late Will and Dora (Mater) Marr. A businessman and committed church worker, Marr spent much of his life in Springvale, ON. He was predeceased by his beloved wife, Naomi (Heise), and his daughter Phyllis Harrison (Lloyd); he is survived by daughters Lucille Marr and Connie Harper (Tom, deceased), son, Ron (Aggie), 12 grandchildren; 7 great-grandchildren; brothers, Glen and Harold; sister, Margaret Ward; and a number of nieces and nephews. His funeral was held at The Dwelling Place (formerly Springvale BIC) near Hagersville, ON, with Pastor Al Thompson officiating. Interment occurred at Maple Lawn Cemetery (Wainfleet, ON).
Nester, Robert, 72, passed away on July 9. Robert was a self-employed machine repairman who serviced sewing machines. He was a devoted husband and family man who always enjoyed time with his family. He is survived by his wife, Jane (Haas); four sons, Mark Fraser, Robert Nester Jr., Michael Fraser, Brian Fraser; daughter, Beth Breon,; 12 grandchildren; two brothers, Marlin and Francis; three sisters, Ethel Schultz, Verna McGarvey, and Vilma Coken. He attended Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.). A private funeral was Ronald C.L. Smith Funeral Home (Duncannon, Pa.).
Price, Myron N., of Everett, Pa., passed away on October 25. Born on April 1, 1940, his parents were George Raymond Price and Fannie Agnes (Garlick) Price. He was a member of Clear Creek BIC (Everett, Pa.). A funeral was held at the Chapel at Dalla Valle Funeral Service, officiated by Rev. John E. Geyer, and interment took place at Cherry Lane Cemetery. He is survived by his wife, Arlene P. (Barton) Price; children, Andrew D. Price and Andrea D. (Price) Mellott; three grandchildren; and six sisters.
Reikard, Darlene E., 57, of Lancaster, Pa., passed away on November 17. Born December 2, 1953, to Ed and Esther Reikard, she was a member of Lancaster BIC. She is survived by her parents, a twin sister, Sharlene, and other immediate family. A funeral took place at Lancaster BIC, with Pastor Josh Nolt officiating.
Slagenweit, Bonnie K., 56, of Watsontown, Pa., died at her home on November 3, after an extended illness. Born January 30, 1955, she was the daughter of Harry R. Miller and Virginia L. (Clark) Miller. Bonnie was a 1972 graduate of God’s Bible School (Cincinnati, Ohio). She worked for the U.S. Postal Service for 16 years and was a member of God’s Missionary Church (New Columbia, Pa.). A friend and servant to all, she was forever putting others before herself by cooking for and helping others in any way possible. She enjoyed gardening, flowers, and, most of all, her grandchildren. Bonnie is preceded in death by her father and a sister, Ruth, in infancy. She is survived by her husband, Mark E. Slagenweit; two daughters, Marianne Brown and Jennifer Harris; two sons, David and Jonathan; her mother; seven grandsons; one granddaughter; and seven siblings, Roger, Steve, Jeff, Dave, MaryLou, Carol, and Faye. A funeral service was held at the Martinsburg (Pa.) BIC Church on November 10, with Pastor Matthew Ellison and Rev. Michael Abell officiating. Burial was in Dry Hill Cemetery (Woodbury, Pa.).
Shaida, Peter L., passed away on January 27, 2011. Son of the late William P. and Eva (Waterman) Shaida, he was born on July 12, 1929 in New York City, N.Y. He proudly served his country in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He graduated from the University of Arkansas with a bachelor's degree in education and a master's degree in speech. In 1992, he retired from his work as a speech therapist at Lancaster-Lebanon IU 13. He held memberships with the National Education Association and the Pennsylvania State Education Association. He and his wife, Laura, were married for 58 years. Peter is survived by his daughter, Marilou Adams; his sons, Chris and Charles; his sister, Anne Shaida; and six grandchildren. Services were held at Lancaster (Pa.) BIC, with Pastor James D. Ernst and Rev. Robert Rhoden officiating.
Sowers, Janet E., 72, passed away on April 17, 2011. The daughter of Margaret Irene Gallagher, she was born in Grantham, Pa., on April 29, 1938. A long-time attendee of Dillsburg (Pa.) BIC Church, Janet is survived by her husband of 54 years, Lloyd R. Sowers; two sons, David L. Sowers and Timothy J. Sowers; one daughter, Melissa M. Sowers; five half-brothers; three half-sisters; four grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. Her funeral was held at Cocklin Funeral Home (Dillsburg, Pa.), with the Rev. James Spurrier officiating. Interment occurred at Filey’s Cemetery in Dillsburg.
Spurrier, Irene M., 92, passed away on November 23, 2010. Daughter of the late John and Mary Schmid, she was born August 13, 1918, in North Dakota. She is survived by her husband, Donald L.; three sons, Robert P., D. John, and James A.; one daughter, Virginia M.; one brother, Irvin Schmid; one sister, Bernice Burns; 10 grandchildren; and nine great-grandchildren. Her funeral was held at Dillsburg (Pa.) BIC, with her son, Rev. John Spurrier, officiating.
Steinbrecher, Esther (Engle) Eshleman, passed away on May 24, 2011. Born on April 29, 1918, in Bausman, Pa., to the late Daniel E. and Emma K. (Good) Engle, she was a 1946 graduate of the Lancaster (Pa.) General Hospital School of Nursing and received post-graduate OBGYN specialization and experience in Providence, R.I. She served as a nurse at Lebanon (Pa.) Valley College, Lancaster General Hospital, and a number of physicians’ offices and private homes. While raising her family, she was a Cub Scout Den mother, a charter member of the Brownies Chapter in Conestoga, Pa., and a supporting leader of the Pequea (Pa.) 4H Club. She was a member of Lancaster (Pa.) BIC and Messiah Village BIC (Mechanicsburg, Pa.). During her 22 years at Messiah Village, she participated in numerous courses and seminars. In her free time, she enjoyed quilting, playing Scrabble and ping pong, and spending time with her family. Esther was preceded in death by her parents and two husbands, Henry Clay Eshleman and W. Henry Steinbrecher. She is survived by her sons, Craig C. and Eric H.; her daughters, Margarite (Peggy) and Patricia (Patty); her stepsons Dr. LeRoy and Rolin; her stepdaughter, Lois; eight grandchildren; one great-grandchild; 15 step-grandchildren; 28 step-great-grandchildren; and seven step-great-great-grandchildren. A funeral, officiated by Pastor James D. Ernst, was held at Lancaster (Pa.) BIC, and interment took place at Cross Roads BIC Cemetery in Mount Joy, Pa.
Willow, Verna Mae, 87, passed away on October 1. She was born on February 7, 1924, in Juniata County, Pa., to the late William and Goldie (Stroup) Hupp. Verna was a wonderful homemaker, and a talented baker who enjoyed cooking. She is survived by three daughters, Annbelle Auker, Darlene Dunn, and Rosemary Womer; a son, Dean Willow; three sisters, Ruth Willow, Valera Rice, and Helen Landis; seven grandchildren; and nine great-grandchildren. She attended Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.). Her funeral was held at the George Garmen Funeral Home (Mt. Pleasant Mills, Pa.), with Pastor Warren Peachy officiating. Interment occurred at St. Peter's United Church of Christ Cemetery.
Auker, Earl R., 77, passed away on August 16. Son of the late John and Beulah (Shelley) Auker, he was born July 8, 1933, in Thompsontown, Pa. A 1951 graduate of Lancaster (Pa.) Mennonite High School, Earl earned an associate’s degree in agricultural business at the Pennsylvania State University’s Altoona campus. In 1976, he opened a John Deere dealership in Oakland Mills, Pa., and in 1983 he became a salesman for Leidy Chevrolet-Oldsmobile. In his retirement, he was a driver for Juniata County (Pa.) Head Start. He loved to tell stories and jokes, but his greatest joy was spending time with his family. He was a member of Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.), where he served as deacon for 15 years. He is survived by his wife of 56 years, Rena; his five children, Jerry Auker, Timothy Auker, Waneta Mast, Christina Hunsberger, and Gwyn Gephart; 15 grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. Rev. Warren Peachey officiated his funeral, which was held at Cedar Grove BIC. Interment took place at Cedar Grove Cemetery.
Barkman, Ruth V., of Everett, Pa., passed away on August 21. Daughter of the late A. Cleveland and Bertha Mae (Conner) Clabaugh, she was born on December 11, 1925. She was preceded in death by two sisters, Violet Wakefoose and Mae Mearkle, and three brothers, Walter, Frank, and Bernard Clabaugh. An attendee of Clear Creek Brethren in Christ Church (Everett, Pa.), her funeral was held at Dalla Valle Funeral Home Chapel in Everett and was officiated by Rev. John E. Geyer. Interment took place at Zion Lutheran Cemetery.
Boyd, Arnold, of Cleveland, Ohio, died on February 9. The son of Albert and Marie Boyd, he was born on May 3, 1924. He is survived by his wife, Peggy, and his daughters, Beverly and Susan. Funeral services were officiated by Pastor Steve Smith at Upland (Calif.) BIC. Interment took place in Whittier, Calif.
Cassady, Curtis L., of Lititz, Pa., passed away on November 25. Son of the late Colin and Winifred Cassady, he was born on March 1, 1928, in Haverhill, N.H. Curtis attended Haverhill Academy and served in the U.S. Navy from 1946-1948. He resided for several years in West Rutland and Wells River, Vt., and later moved to Lititz, where he lived for 32 years. He was preceded in death by his wife of 60 years, Myrna. He is survived by his son, Gary; daughters, Judi McCullough, Laurie Thompson, and Leanne Cassady; six grandchildren; three step-grandchildren; and twelve great-grandchildren. His funeral, held at Lancaster (Pa.) BIC, was officiated by Rev. James D. Ernst. Interment took place at Haverhill, N.H.
Coyler, Susan R., 36, of Mifflin County, Pa., passed away on March 5. Daughter of the late Raymond and Carol (Leister) Hoffman, she had been a member of Cedar Grove BIC Church (Mifflintown, Pa.), where she had served as custodian, worked with nursery and Sunday school administration, and played an active role on the flower and decorating committee. Most recently, she and her family had been attending Brown’s United Methodist Church (Cocolamus, Pa.). Surviving Susan are her husband of nearly 18 years, Todd Colyeer; her dauthers, Jenna Carol and Leah Rae; her sisters, Barbara Hornberger and Tracey Hanley; and her nieces, Alison Heidler, Elizabeth Heidler, and Miranda Hornberger. Rev. Ronald Landis officiated the funeral, which was held at Browns United Methodist Church (McAlisterville, Pa.), and interment took place at Cedar Grove Cemetery (Mifflintown).
Hall, Gladys M., of Hopewell Township, Pa., passed away on June 14. Daughter of the late Milton and Ella (Ford) Young, she was born on May 26, 1918. She is survived by daughters Ella Madonna Peachey, Judith A. Gonsman, and Glenda J. Johnson; sons Emanuel T. “Manny” Hall and Richard M. Hall; a sister, Faye Morton; 22 grandchildren; 38 great-grandchildren; and 11 great-great-grandchildren. She was preceded in death by a son, Benjamin Hall; two sisters, Ruth Boor and Sue McFarland; an infant brother, Kenneth Young; and three adult brothers, Walter, Cyril, and Jesse Young. An attendee of Clear Creek BIC (Everett, Pa.), her funeral was held at St. Paul Reformed Church in Everett and officiated by Reverends Gary L. Sams and John E. Geyer. Interment took place at Yellow Creek (Pa.) Cemetery.
Henderson, Ruth Winnifred, 94, born January 19, 1916, to Walter and Emma Henderson, died peacefully at home in Stouffville, ON, on March 25. She was the last surviving member of the singing trio know as “The Henderson Sisters,” a group that sang in BIC churches and camp meetings across North America. Ruth and her sisters were also influential in the founding and establishment of Oak Ridges BIC (Richmond Hill, ON). Ruth was the loving sister of the late Myrtle Scharbach, Bernice Cassel, Helen Climenhage, Blance, Freda, and Melvin. She will also be missed by her nine nieces and nephews. A celebration of Ruth’s life was held at Oak Ridges on April 24, and officiated by Rev. Ken Smith. Interment took place at Heise Hill BIC (Gormley, ON). Adapted from the Toronto Star on April 3.
Hockenberry, Sr., Charles L., passed away on November 29, 2010. Son of the late Earl T. and Goldie R. (Arentz) Hockenberry, he was born on November 11, 1932, in Turbett Township, Pa. He was a heavy equipment operator for Hempt Brothers Construction (Camp Hill, Pa.). He was also a U.S. Air Force veteran, having served during the Korean War. He was a life member of Mifflin Fire Company, Juniata County Sportsman Association, and Union Cemetery Association. He is survived by his wife, Betty L. (Cummings) Hockenberry; three sons, Gary, Charles, and David; sisters, Mary McLaughlin, Brenda Boone, and Jean Baney; brothers, Thomas and Tony; seven grandchildren; and one great-grandchild. Services were held at Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.), with Pastor Steve Munger officiating. Interment took place at Union Cemetery (Walker Township, Pa.).
Hoffman, Betty C., 85, formerly of Maytown, Pa., died on May 16 at Messiah Village in Mechanicsburg, Pa. Born in Chicago, she was the daughter of the late Charles S. and Helen (Smith) Collins Herr. Graduating from Messiah Academy (Grantham, Pa.) in 1942, she was then employed by Evangel Publishing House and Collins Furniture, both in Nappanee, Ind. She married her husband, John H. Hoffman, on October 11, 1943. Together, they served three years of alternative service at the Rhode Island State Hospital. They then returned to John’s hometown, Maytown, where John worked in banking and Betty devoted herself to the family. After her children were grown, she worked at Donegal (Pa.) High School as a Teacher’s Aid and then four years as a bookkeeper for Wolgemuth Feed Mill in Mount Joy, Pa. Betty spent three years researching and compiling genealogies of the Hoffman, Hess, Collins, and Smith families from the first immigrant to America until 1985, when the books were published. She enjoyed travel, sewing, reading, camping, and walking. She was a member of Elizabethtown (Pa.) BIC. In addition to her parents, she was preceded in death by two sisters: Norma C. Sollenberger and Helen C. Book. She is survived by her husband, John; a son, Warren; three daughters, Karen Boyer, Nancy Johnson, and Linda, fiancé of Carl Jones; 11 grandchildren; and 19 great-grandchildren. A funeral service was held on May 22 at Elizabethtown BIC. Interment took place in East Donegal Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made to the Alzheimer’s Association or to the East Donegal Cemetery Association.
Kanode, Helen Lois (Dodson), of Greensboro, N.C., passed away on August 2. Daughter of John and Lena Dodson, she was born January 10, 1931—the first child born at the Everett Hospital in that year. She worked as a secretary for McBeth Corporation, Air Hill BIC (Chambersburg, Pa.), and Elastic Fabrics. She is survived by two sons, John and David Kanode; a granddaughter, Anna Katherine Kanode; two sisters, Naomi Thompson and Martha Miller; and a brother, Reuben Dodson. The funeral was held at her home congregation, Air Hill Brethren in Christ Church, with Reverends Roger Witter and David Hall officiating. Interment took place in the Air Hill Cemetery.
Klinger, Wilmer “Doc,” 84, of Marion, S.D., passed away after a brave struggle with cancer on March 13. He and his wife, Betty, were longtime members of Upland (Calif.) BIC. In addition to his wife, Doc is survived by daughters Lola, Kathy, and Kristy; and son Galen. The funeral took place in Hesperia, Calif.
Kreider, Ethel P., 81, of Mount Joy, Pa., passed away on April 11. Born on October 20, 1928, she was the daughter of the late Irvin M. and Anna Hostetter Wolgemuth, and a member at Lancaster (Pa.) BIC. Ethel graduated from Lancaster (Pa.) School of Nursing in 1950. From 1953 to 1955, she served under Mennonite Central Committee in the West Bank, Jordan as a nurse. She also practiced nursing at the BIC Navajo Mission (Farmington, N.M.) for three years. She then cared for her family at home for 13 years before she began assisting her husband in his medical practice in Philadelphia and then working as a private duty nurse for Central Penn Nursing Care. A funeral, officiated by Pastor James D. Ernst, took place at the church, and her body was donated to the Humanity Gifts Registry. Ethel is survived by her husband of 47 years, John K.; son, John W.; daughters, Mary Lathrop and Rebecca; 9 grandchildren; “daughter,” Patricia Ncube, of Zimbabwe; siblings, Ruth Heisey, Anna Martha Wingert, and Earl Wolgemuth; and many nieces & nephews. Two siblings, Lester and Alma W. Engle, preceded her in death. A memorial service took place at Lancaster BIC on April 17, though there wasn’t a viewing, because Ethel donated her body to Human Gifts Registry. In lieu of flowers, memorial gifts may be sent to Paxton Ministries (Harrisburgh, Pa.) or Hospice of Lancaster County.
Lambdin, Dean, 41, died at home on January 31. Born on December 3, 1968, he grew up in Baltimore, Md., attending the Marlyn Avenue BIC (now Faith BIC) in Essex, Md. In 1994, two years after re-dedicating his life to Christ, Dean married Amy (Hulett). Five years later, God called the couple to enter ministry, and they moved to Iowa, where Dean received a bachelor’s degree in pastoral ministries at Vennard College (University Park) in 2002. He served as youth director at the Evangelical Church of Oskaloosa (Ill.) until 2001, and as a pastoral intern at Wright (Iowa) Union Community Church from 2000–2002. Dean was then assigned to Grace Chapel Evangelical Church (Milwaukee, Wisc.), where he served from 2002–2005, followed by three years with the Bangor Liberty Friends Church (Union, Iowa). He began his tenure as pastor of Morrison (Ill.) BIC in 2008 and continued through 2009. Surviving Dean are his wife, Amy, and daughters, Emily and Hannah. Visitation was on February 3 at the Morrison Chapel of the Bosma-Renkes Funeral home and a funeral service took place on February 4 at Emmanuel Reformed Church (Morrison, Ill.).
Lee, Sylvia Mae Barton, 64, of Farmington, N.M., passed away on May 16. She was born October 26, 1945, in Fort Defiance, Ariz., the youngest of six children born to Stewart and Jennie Barton. She was Taciinii (Red Running into Water), born for Todichiinii (Bitter Waters) Clans. She was married to Herman T. Lee of Shiprock, N.M. She graduated from Rehoboth Mission School, near Gallup, N.M., and also earned her associate degree from San Juan College and a bachelor’s degree from Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colo. In addition to various other jobs, Sylvia worked with the Navajo Brethren in Christ Overcomers Rehab Program (Farmington).
Sylvia was a talented bowler and a skilled and artistic quilter, winning many regional and national awards. She was an active member of the Light of Life Mennonite Church of Farmington, playing piano and participating in a weekly Bible study. Sylvia was preceded in death by her parents; her half-brother, Daniel Barton; two half-sisters, Frances Joe and Helen Chapito; and a nephew, Kendall Barton. She is survived by her loving husband, Herman; son, Brian A. Lee; daughter Vikki Albright; two brothers, Stewart Barton, Jr., and Raymond D. Barton; and three sisters, Jean Cometsevah, Shirley Henry, and Wilhelmina Matern. A memorial service was held on May 20, at Light of Life Mennonite Church followed by a funeral service on May 21, at Bethany Christian Reformed Church (Gallup, N.M.), with Pastor Phil Rosenberger officiating. Interment was at Rehoboth (Gallup).
Lehman, Rev. Simon A., Jr., 84, was born into a family of seven brothers and sisters on January 15, 1926 and went to his heavenly reward on January 28. He was a retired minister and had served as pastor of Mechanicsburg (Pa.) BIC, Roseglen BIC (Duncannon, Pa.), West Shore BIC (Mechanicsburg, Pa.), Fairview BIC (New Cumberland, Pa.) and Mowersville BIC (Newburg, Pa.). Simon had served on many boards and committees of the BIC Church, and helped to begin and plant three daughter churches. He is preceded in death by his parents and a step-mother, brothers Robert and Earl, and sisters Pauline and Gladys. Surviving are his wife, Betty; son, P. Kenneth; three grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. Also surviving are his brothers Charles and Ronald and sister Betty. Funeral services were held at Mechanicsburg (Pa.) BIC on February 1. Burial took place at Longsdorf Cemetery in New Kingstown, Pa. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions may be made to American Heart or Alzheimer’s Association of Central PA.
Oldham, Samuel K., 82, passed away on August 16. Son of the late Jesse S. and Jennie (Kanode) Oldham, he was born in Altoona, Pa., on December 28, 1927. On March 24, 1951, he married Sarah J. Stoner, his wife of 59 years. A graduate of Messiah College (Grantham, Pa.), he continued his education with courses at Elizabethtown (Pa.) College and Mansfield (Pa.) College before becoming a Brethren in Christ minister. He pastored small country churches in Michigan and Pennsylvania. He also taught social studies for five years in Boiling Springs, Pa., and special education for 15 years in northern Pennsylvania. Along with his wife, Sarah, he participated in short- term mission projects through BIC World Missions. He also enjoyed hunting, woodworking, and spending time with his family. He is survived by his wife; five children, Helen Leach, Carol Wetmore, Dorothy Hoy, Sue George, and James S. Oldman; a brother, Jesse Oldham; a sister, Ruth Lehman; 15 grandchildren; and 15 great-grandchildren. A member of Dillsburg (Pa.) BIC, his funeral was held at Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.), with the Rev. James Spurrier officiating. Interment took place at Cedar Grove Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made in his memory to BIC World Missions, P.O. Box 390, Grantham, PA 17027.
Price, Donald W., of Everett, Pa., passed away on May 9. Son of the late Walter and Loma (Mallow) Price, he was born on April 5, 1956. He is survived by a sister, Beverly Mills; nephews Stephen, Justin, and Jeffrey Mills; great-nieces, Kristen, Rebekah, Lilly, and Madison Mills; and great-nephew Elijah Mills. He was preceded in death by a brother, Dwight. His funeral, held at Clear Creek BIC (Everett, Pa.), was conducted by Rev. John E. Geyer. Interment took place at Pleasant Union Cemetery (Clearville, Pa.).
Riley, Richard L., Sr., of Everett, Pa., passed away on May 29. Son of the late Ritner D. and Grace A. (Naugle) Riley, he was born June 22, 1926. For many years he worked as a self-employed truck driver; later, he owned and operated Riley’s Trucking and Equipment for over twenty years, until his retirement. In addition, he served as minister at the Eight Square BIC and Altoona (Pa.) BIC. He is survived by five children, Rick L. Riley, Victor D. Riley, Lynnette G. DeLozier, Gregory D. Riley, and Rachel J. Imler; nine grandchildren; four great-grandchildren; and two sisters, Lydia R. Diehl and Ruth Vaughn. A private memorial service was held at Clear Creek BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.). Interment took place at Bethel Cemetery.
Shaffer, Ruth L., 86, passed away on February 19. Born June 17, 1923, in Columbus, Mont., to the late Harry and Altha (Setser) Wentz, she enjoyed gardening—especially growing orchids—and owned Scenic River Greenhouse, where her specialty was creating hanging baskets. She is survived by Sherman Shaffer, her husband of 66 years; Jean Canney, her daughter; Peggy Werner Louise Coons, Dorothy Powell, Dolly Holland, Joanne LaFex, James Wentz, Fred Wentz, and LeRoy Wentz, her brothers and sisters; three grandchildren; and one great-granddaughter. A member of Cedar Grove BIC (Mifflintown, Pa.) Church, her funeral took place at Guss Funeral Home with Pastor Steve Munger officiating, and interment was held at the Cedar Grove Cemetery.
Slagenweit, Ruth Elizabeth, 94, passed away on February 14. Daughter of the late P.B. and Edna Friesen, she was born in Thomas, Olka., on December 27, 1915. Ruth was a schoolteacher who also served at BIC home missions in Kentucky and Pennsylvania. For many years, she was married to Andrew Slagenweit, who preceded her in death in 2000; together, they pastored BIC congregations in Ohio and Pennsylvania. She spent the final years of her life at Messiah Village (Mechanicsburg, Pa.), where she enjoyed quilting, volunteering, and praying for missionaries. She is survived by four daughters and their spouses; three sisters; a brother; eight grandchildren; and 12 great-grandchildren. Her funeral was held at Messiah Village BIC, with Rev. Ronald Slabaugh officiating. Interment took place in Woodbury, Pa.
Whittington, Rev. Garland Lee, 70, passed away January 3, in Pueblo, Colo. He was born April 19, 1941, in Columbus, Ohio. Garland was a decorated Vietnam veteran and served in the United States Army for 20 years. Following his retirement, he obtained his degree in religion and philosophy from Kansas Wesleyan University (Salina, Kans.) and became a pastor for the BIC, pastoring in Colorado Springs, Colo.; Garret, Ind.; the Navajo Mission near Bloomfield, N.M.; and Buckeye, Kans. He is survived by his wife, Virginia Eveleth; his daughters, Mary Hacker and Tacey Trevino Russell; his son, Burnham; and eight grandchildren. His family requests that in lieu of flowers, donations be sent to a memorial fund with ENT Federal Credit Union in Pueblo, Colo., account number 525620. Memorial services were held March 26, at the Buckeye (Kans.) Church. Adapted from The Abilene Reflector on Jan. 16.
Wideman, Dorothy Pearl, was born in Gormley, ON, to Landon and Tena Steckley on April 1, 1921, the second child of five. A lifelong and active attendee of Heise Hill BIC, she gave her heart to the Lord at an early age. Dorothy married Murray Wideman in 1944 and moved to the Wideman Family Farm in Richmond Hill, ON, where she became a busy wife and mother of five—Shirley, Don, Joan, Dale, and Wendy. Murray passed away in 1964 after a short illness, leaving Dorothy a widow at the early age of 43. She soon sold the farm and moved the family to back to her hometown of Gormley. There, she took on a variety of jobs outside the home, finally finding her perfect fit at the Villa Private Hospital, where she worked until her retirement in 1986. That same year, she eagerly moved into one of the new apartments at Parkview Village in Stoufville. She resided there until her short hospital stay near the end of her life. Dorothy enjoyed all of the activities associated at Parkview and made many friends. Throughout her life, she enjoyed travelling the U.S. and Canada extensively. At Heise Hill BIC, she served as a Deacon’s wife, a Sunday School teacher, an alto in a ladies group, a member of the Ladies Sewing Circle, the church organist, and a prayer warrior. She peacefully went home to be with the Lord on February 6, at the Markham–Stouffville Hospital, after a battle with Leukemia. A funeral, officiated by Pastor Steve Authier, was held at Heise Hill BIC, followed by interment at Heise Hill Cemetery. Dorothy is survived by her five children, 12 grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren.
Wilkins, Bruce C., was born in Everett, Pa., on November 25, 1929, the son of Dewey and Vera (Mearkle) Wilkins. A member of Clear Creek BIC (Everett) congregation, he passed away on May 23 at the age of 80. He is survived by his daughter, Robin R.; his son B. Eliot; his grandchildren, Hanna Kagema, Rachael Labbe, Jael, Joanna, Sonja, and Jarred; his great-grandchildren, Abigail and Samuael Kagema, and Hunter and Hayden Labbe; and two brothers, Arlyn and Archie. He was preceded in death by a brother, Alfred, and an infant sister. A funeral for Bruce was held at Akers Funeral Home, with John Geyer officiating. Interment was at the Wilkins Family Farm in Everett.
Gilmore, Robert, of Wainfleet, ON, passed away on October 21. Son of Lewis and Mabel Gilmore, he was born on October 24, 1929. Predeceased by his son, Robert, and his wife, Lucy, he is survived by a son, Scott, and a daughter, Kimberly. Reverends Charles Mashinter and John R. Sider conducted the funeral service, which was held at Wainfleet BIC, before interment at Zion Cemetary.
Hensley, Doris, born August 9, 1925, passed away on January 1. Born in Dallas Center, Iowa, her parents were David and Ruth Wingert. Doris married Del Hensley in 1951. Her funeral, officiated by Pastor Steve Smith, was held at Upland (Calif.) BIC.
Musser, Elva, of Abilene, Kans., passed away on February 5. Born to Harvey and Susie Wenger on May 8, 1914, she is survived by her sons, Gary and Carl, as well as her daughter, Gail. Pastor Steve Smith conducted the funeral at Upland (Calif.) BIC.
Slofstra, Mitchell Allan, 44, a lay minister at Cheapside (ON) BIC, passed away on October 3. A dedicated and devoted Christian husband, father, and family man, Mitch is survived by his wife, Marsha (Lofthouse), and three children whom he loved very much: Natthan, Klairissa, and Austin. He was the loving son of Beverley and the late Allan Slofstra, and the brother of Irene Veldhuis, Eric, and Sophia Schott. He will also be missed by his father-in-law, Keith Lofthouse; brother-in-law, Mark Lofthouse; and many nieces and nephews. He was a fighter to the end of his battle with cancer and will be remembered for his saying, “God is real! Trust and obey.”
Smith, Ronald R., 68, died on December 17. Born on April 21, 1941, to Emmert W. and E. Grace (Rhodes) Smith, he was a graduate of Central High School (Martinsburg, Pa.), where he participated in basketball and was voted Most Valuable Player following his 1959–1960 year. He retired as owner/operator of Smith’s Used Cars with over 20 years of service. Previously, he had worked as staff manager at American Life Insurance Company of Altoona, Pa. He enjoyed gardening, camping, the outdoors, and spending time with his family. He is survived by his wife, Linda L.; children, Michael Troy and Roni Sue Shaw; sister, Aneta A. Claire; and six grandchildren. A funeral was held December 21 at Ronald’s church, Martinsburg (Pa.) BIC, with Rev. Earl E. Herr officiating.